Article by Ed Herbst
If you Google the word fynbos, Wikipedia will tell you that it is “the natural shrubland or heathland vegetation occurring in a small belt of the Western Cape of South Africa, mainly in winter rainfall coastal and mountainous areas with a Mediterranean climate. The Fynbos ecoregion is within the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. In fields related to biogeography, fynbos is known for its exceptional degree of biodiversity and endemism.”
Fynbos is what is found on the banks of the mountain streams near Cape Town that harbour trout and what they eat has fascinated me for decades.
The short answer to the question applies to trout wherever they are found – what’s available but, more importantly, what is available and can be most easily captured.
A very useful overview on what trout in small streams eat can be found on Tom Sutcliffe’s ‘Spirit of Fly Fishing’ website and he explains how to use a stomach pump to ascertain what the fish has been eating without killing it.
His findings are valuable.
- The insects I found were generally at least two sizes smaller than the flies we were using, the majority being equivalent to hook sizes 20 to 24 or smaller.
- Nymphs, particularly Baetid mayflies, predominated, mostly black, very dark grey or shades of pale olive.
- Terrestrials were relatively rare, but of those found, beetles and winged ants predominated, again in very small sizes. Most beetles were dark with lustrous backs and most of the ants were black as well.
He also refers to various scientific studies that have been done in the Western Cape, Natal and in Kenya.
Trout diet obviously has seasonal variations and I write here about some fascinating information gleaned from Piscator, annual journal of the Cape Piscatorial Society.
With the help of former Cape Piscatorial Society secretary, Denise Hills, I collated the information contained in ‘Notes from the Clubroom Board’.
A C Harrison, the founder of the Cape Piscatorial Society was also, for many years, the editor of Piscator and he introduced “Notes from the Clubroom Board” in issue number 45 (Autumn 1959). The article contained details of trout caught in Steenbras Reservoir, the Wemmer River (this was before the Wemmershoek Dam was built and the Smalblaar and Upper Berg Rivers.
In time, a card system was introduced which enabled members to record details of the trout they caught and the stomach contents because this was an era before catch and release became obligatory.
Some members delighted in recording their adventures in some detail and less experienced anglers perused these cards in the hope of gleaning information which would increase their catch rate.
At that time there were three issues a year because AC ran a typewriter repair business from the club room and this enabled him to spend a lot of time editing the magazine.
After he retired in the mid-seventies the numbers of magazines produced annually was reduced to two and then one as advertising revenue decreased and printing costs increased.
As a result, “Notes from the Clubroom Board” which ran in Piscator for 14 years from the autumn of 1965 until the autumn of 1979 was dropped for space reasons and it was loss which was keenly felt.
Having all the bound copies from the first issue I realised that there was a lot of useful information contained in the notes on stomach contents and former secretary, Denise Hills transcribed the most useful information in longhand and it was then typed.
What was clear was that in April and May, the numbers of what we call “Toebiters” – but what are called hellgrammites in the USA, were found in increasing numbers in trout stomachs. At this time the larvae move to the shore, climb out of the water and dig a hole in moist soil where they pupate. Over the years anglers spoke of trout stomachs being “packed” with Toebiters in autumn.
They are part of the Megaloptera family and if you Google “images hellgrammite larvae” and “images hellgrammite adults” you will get a good idea of the various life stages.
The Cape Dobsonfly (Taeniochauloides ochraceopennis) is described on page 172 of The Field Guide to Insects of South Africa co-authored by Mike Picker, Charles Griffiths and Alan Weaving (Struik 2002). The larva is light brown and grows to 40 mm.
I asked our secretary at the time, Denise Hills, to transcribe the references to stomach contents and a further interesting factor became obvious. What is also increasingly found in trout stomach contents in autumn is grasshoppers.
This makes sense because this is when adult grasshoppers mate and lay their eggs, often using the same locations year after year. And this increase in activity clearly makes them more vulnerable to predation.
I wrote about the reasons for the sudden increase in grasshopper activity in April and May in an article on Tom Sutcliffe’s website:
After the article appeared I got an email from Eben Dowd, fly fishing editor for Tight Lines magazine. Eben has a high-altitude farm in Maclear with a small stream containing a self-generating head of brown trout. He says the stream bank swarms with hoppers in April and May but the moment the first winter frost is experienced, they literally disappear overnight, possibly killed by the sub-zero temperatures.
My grasshopper imitation, which I based on the balsawood McMurray Ant, ticks all the boxes of ‘General Impression of Size and Shape’ and incorporates a lot of movement but it is a bit complex to tie. You can find tying instructions on my DVD, A South African Fly Tying Journey with Ed Herbst and Friends and on Tom Sutcliffe’s website. (I think tan or pale green foam is a better choice of colour, rather than yellow – match the colour of the hoppers you find on the bank.) Tim Rolston features a very effective hopper pattern on his combination of book and DVD, Guide Flies.
Looking at the hoppers which I have come across on the streams near Cape Town and cross-referencing the information and the colour photographs in the Field Guide to Insects of South Africa, I would say that the most common are Rock Grasshoppers (Conistica saucia), Burrowing Grasshoppers (Acrotylus) and Yellow Wings (Oedaleus). If one takes the early instars into account I would say that two centimetres was an average length and tan the average colour.
MC Coetzer is adamant that hopper imitations for the streams near Cape Town must utilise orange barred rubber legs. If you take a rubber leg, place one end in the vise and twist it you can create your own barring by simply running a black felt tip marker down one side of the strand.
It has always been known that there are massive hatches of blackfly and mountain midges in spring but the autumn bonanzas were not well known
A tan wooly worm fished down and across would seem to be an obvious tactic to mimic the toebiter larvae moving from the middle of the stream to the bank
There are more realistic imitations – Google Charlie Craven’s Pickle for a chenille and rubber leg imitation.
So if toebiters and hoppers predominate in the stomachs of trout in late autumn what flies should you select to cover the various levels of the water column in spring and summer?
Fred Steynberg who guides out of the village of Rhodes in the mountains of the north-eastern Cape has pumped the stomachs of dozens of trout over the years and photographed the results. They contain, in the main, Baetid nymphs and black fly larvae and whatever terrestrial insects are most prevalent. In spring in Rhodes and Barkly East this means the small, iridescent-green leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) and inchworms.
There are days when you get no response to the dry and then you go to the nymph. Beadhead versions of Frank Sawyer’s Pheasant Tail Nymph mimic the Baetis nymphs and my Simulid nymph which is comprised of wire, beads and UV light-cured resin specifically imitates black fly larvae. Tim Rolston, whose self-published book, Guide Flies is packed with information on the insects favoured by trout in the fynbos biome says that most of the organisms found in trout stomachs resemble the little black blobs found in the lint trap of your washing machine and his answer is an ultra-simple # 18-20 soft hackle which uses black cotton and CDC.
One of the pioneers of fly fishing in the Western Cape was Fred Bowker who wrote two books about his experiences on the Eerste River in Stellenbosch. Trout Flies, published in 1938, contains this very revealing and I believe important passage: ‘The dry fly is seldom a success on the Eerste River, except there is a short period every season when they seem to take anything ravenously. This short season varies according to the rainfall, but generally takes place sometime between the middle of October and the middle of November, sometimes earlier.’
What Bowker, who wrote under the pseudonym ‘Kingfisher”, was experiencing was a spring hatch of two insects, the Black Fly (Simuliidae) and the Net Wing Midge, sometimes called the Mountain Midge (Blephariceridae). Type these names into Google Images and you will see plenty of photographs of them.
I recall fishing the Elandspad in early September and seeing the rocks covered with net winged midge pupa – they are about the size of your little fingernail and look like a black limpet with two little horns – a Google images search shows examples.
I realised that an emergence was imminent and about a week later, fishing the pool above the weir on the Elandspad I was astonished to see the air filled with what looked like grey candy floss – thousands of Mountain Midges. The water was boiling with rises and I quickly tied on a very effective pattern in those pre-CDC days. It was a # 16 Fore and Aft pattern with a black thread body but tied in the French way with the shiny sides of the rooster hackle facing inwards creating what looks like a small X.
It floats exceptionally well and as I released my first trout of several, a trout bumped into my legs in its eagerness to gorge on the feast which had suddenly presented itself.
Three locally-developed patterns are what you need on such occasions but they work well throughout much of the year.
CDC has not been described as the miracle material for fly tyers for no reason and if you are looking for a dry fly that best imitates the adult Net Winged then look no further than Darryl Lampert’s Hi Vis CDC Midge:
When a former member of the Italian national team for the fly fishing world championship, Eduardo Ferrero, was brought to this country by Korrie Broos a few years ago he introduced us to an exceptional CDC fly, the Arpo. A CDC feather is tied in by the butt at the bend of the hook and then wound to the eye where the tip is swept back to create a wing. Angelo Piller ties one in about three minutes on Vimeo and there is also a step by step sequence on the Pipam website. It was intended as a caddis imitation but if you add a tail of CDL fibres you add buoyancy and turn it into an ideal fly for the egg laying Choroterpes nigrescens females
Treat your Hi Vis Midges (and other CDC flies) with Watershed, leave them on the windowsill to dry in the sun and you will have a deadly fly that casts easily, lands softly, floats well and is easy to see. If you use, for example, red Ice Dub as your post with an HV Midge made of Black CDC you will not only have a contrasting colour but a material which reflects tiny sparkles of light. This enhances your ability to follow the fly no matter what the light conditions are. In the examples shown here I have used pearl microflash and UV flashabou which I feel more closely imitate the fluttering wings of the insect than the red parachute post material which was originally used. Rather than splitting the thread before inserting the CDC barbules I used ultra-thin and ultra-strong 18/0 Semperfli Nanosilk to create a small dubbing loop behind and in front of the post.
If you need convincing then read Gordon van der Spuy’s article about how it turned a fruitless day into a successful one
An even easier fly to tie is Tom Sutcliffe’s Single feather CDC Midge which he developed specifically to mimic the Net Wing Midge but which is also a very useful imitation for adult black fly and you can find a step by step tying sequence on his website.
Tom website features several articles by fly fishers on their six favourite flies for the trout streams near Cape Town.
MC Coetzer had some solid advice in his article – aside from his observation that barred orange rubber legs are by far the best choice for hopper patterns.
When I still fished competitively I fished dry flies almost exclusively on our rivers. The reason is that I believe dries to be less intrusive than nymphs and as long as your drifts are good you will get many chances at the same fish / same piece of water. You can only plonk a nymph in front of a fish once and if you plonk too close you will spook him and not get another opportunity. In a competition session on the Smalblaar River four fish in a three hour session was generally enough to get a very high placing, so it was vital to make every one of those fish count. I will always fish the small pattern as a first option, but if a fish showed itself, but refused the fly, I will not make another cast at him with the same fly – this is critical but difficult to do. I will very carefully move back about five metres and relax for a couple of minutes. Then I will change the fly to the CDC dry and change my position behind the fish so that I could get the perfect drift, but from a different angle. Nine out of ten times the fish would then simply eat the “new” pattern as it comes over and I suspect it is more a matter of getting a better presentation, rather than the better fly.
If the fish didn’t move for the CDC pattern I would repeat the procedure but change to an aggressive dry – something like a hopper or a big RAB.
Apart from massive hatches of black fly and net wing midge in spring, – both of which are adequately covered by the two CDC midge patterns from Tim Rolston and Darryl Lampert and Tom Sutcliffe’s Single Feather Midge – there are no significant aquatic hatches of aquatic insects which can be predicted and relied upon. Tim Rolston points out that tiny caddis are constantly present on the rocks for much of the year and his book, Guide Flies, contains a proven pattern for this insects which he has refined over many years.
There is however one aquatic insect which can be relied on to produce – for an hour or two most days and for much of the year – rising trout.
At about ten thirty on the Holsloot for example, the stream will come alive with rising fish. Some will catapult out of the water and that is the clue you are looking for. If you have the sun at your back turn around and you will discern small mayflies dipping down onto the water. They are the female Holsloot Darkeng Duns (Choroterpes nigrescens) and they trail the tips of their abdomens where the egg sac is situated into the current so that it can disperse the eggs.
Darryl Lampert’s Hi-Vis CDC Midge is a very useful imitation as are Tim Rolston’s micropatterns such as his BSP parachute and his Spundun variations which are covered in his outstanding book, Guide Flies.
Another superb and easy-to-tie imitation is Agostino Roncallo’s single-feather CDC imitation, The Mirage.
The terrestrial hatch
Just as grasshoppers suddenly become prevalent on our streams in April and May so small beetles make an appearance in spring and this is related very specifically to the blooming of fynbos flowers.
The three species that I have found common are the Oval hairy Monkey Beetle (Pertrichia cinerea), the Brown Monkey Beetle (Pachycema marginella) and the Green Protea Beetle (Trichostetha fuscicularis)
If you spot these in your garden in suburban Cape Town then the trout will be feeding on them in the Holsloot and the Smalblaar streams.
Of the Oval Hairy Monkey Beetle, the invaluable Field Guide to Insects of South Africa says: “Feeds mostly on pollen and probably also on nectar of white blue and purple flowers, particularly liliaceae”. Of the diet of the Brown Monkey Beetle the book says: “Adults burrow into discs of daisies and thistles.”
You can find images of most of these beetles and the flowers they populate on the website of Colin Paterson-Jones. Just do a Google search with the Latin name of the above-mentioned beetles and also include Anisonyx ursus.
When it comes to the presence of beetles, then, your guide is the flowers that are blooming and pay particular attention to the presence of a shrub with pale blue, delicately-scented flowers which belong to the Fabaceae or legume family. Their colloquial names are Fonteinbos, Bloukeur or Penwortel. Its Latin name is Psoralea pinnata and a Google search reveals that it is “an erect shrub or small tree, which grows up to 4 m high, with blue, lilac and white, pea-shaped flowers which bloom from October to December. Psoralea pinnata is a fairly widespread species growing from the Clanwilliam District south towards the Cape Peninsula and then eastwards and northwards through George and Knysna to the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Swaziland and Mphumalanga.”
The reason why this shrub is important to fly fishers is that unlike proteas, daisies and thistles, it grows on river banks and marshy areas
A closely related plant is Psoralea aphylla and a Google search describes it as being found from Clanwillian to Worcester, the Peninsula to Riversdale, growing by streams, on wet rocks and in marshy places, flowering in October-February.
If you can locate one of these plants overhanging the stream then you have a guaranteed supply of Monkey Beetles in mid spring and trout reacting very positively to imitations which should be tied on a #16 – 18 hook. If you have trouble following your imitation on the water, simply fishing it with a strike indicator.
The silhouette of the Monkey Beetle is very distinctive because of the large hind legs and this feature should be incorporated in your imitations.
In Bark East and Rhodes the presence of willow trees on the river banks signals in early spring the advent of bronze-green leaf-eating beetles (Chrysomelidae) and a #16-18 imitation tied with peacock herl, such as the Black and Peacock Spider is all you need.
Don’t’ forget the ants!
I recall an ant fall when I was fishing the Donkergat pool on the Smalblaar stream near Worcester. It was hot, humid day, ideal weather for the ants to pour out of the ground in their nuptial flight. Soon the water was carpeted with ant bodies but I had no ant patterns. My RAB was studiously ignored even when I cast it into the middle of frantically rising trout. When I suffered the ultimate ignominy, a big trout shouldering my RAB aside as it took yet another ant, I gave up. A small bass was situated close to the bank and I watched with interest as it ignored the majority of the ants floating overhead, taking only those that were visibly struggling.
Tim Rolston has a YouTube clip showing his Compara Ant and he says that it works exceptionally well as a ‘when-all-else-fails’ searching pattern. Like all his patterns it is a quick-and-easy tie.
If you see ant wings on the rocks, try an ant pattern because there will still be some drifting downstream after the main fall.
Hunting Trout by Tom Sutcliffe
Guide Flies by Tim Rolston
A South African Fly Tying Journey with Ed Herbst and Friends, DVD 1 and 2
Freshwater Life – A field guide to the plants and animals of southern Africa.
Charles Griffiths, Jenny Day, Mike Picker
All available from Stream X/Netbooks
If you analyse the catch returns below you will see how in April and May the numbers of toebiters and grasshoppers increases substantially simply because trout predate on the food forms that are available and what is most vulnerable to predation in late autumn are these insects.
But there is another reason why hoppers end up in the water and in trout stomachs and it is an extraordinary and macabre story.
Read about the astonishing lifestyle of the horsehair worm and watch the horrifying YouTube clips which are part of the article I wrote for Tom Sutcliffe, ‘Why fish hoppers in autumn?’
The contents of the article above was based on the notes collected over the years by CPS members (stored in the CPS clubroom)
|Autumn 1965||No. 63||Smalblaar||H.A. Biggs||Skink lizards; crabs; grasshoppers; dragonfly nymphs|
|Autumn 1965||No. 63||Molenaars||S.F. Wilmot||Dragonfly; corydalid larvae|
|Autumn 1965||No. 64||Vogelvlei||Vöro||Crabs; frogs; insects|
|Autumn 1965||No. 64||Smalblaar||H.A. Biggs||Lizards|
|Autumn 1965||No. 65||Witte||H.A. Biggs||Dragonfly larvae|
|Autumn 1965||No. 66||Smalblaar||H.A. Biggs||Dragonfly larvae; grasshoppers; various insects|
|10.04.1966||No. 67||Toebiters; crabs|
|01.05.1966||Smalblaar||J.M Fourie||Toebiters; duns|
|08.05.1966||Molenaars||L. Sisson||Toebiters; duns|
|28.05.1966||Paarde Vlei||J. Whittle||Water snails|
|24.12.1966||L. Sisson||Crabs; dragonfly nymphs|
|April 1967||Smalblaar||Biggs & Pringues||Dragonfly; nymphs|
|May 1967||Smalblaar||R O Bell||Toebiters|
|May 1967||Smalblaar||Biggs & Godley||Toebiters; mymphs; terrestrials|
|08.04.1967||Holsloot||Beams & Verhawe||Toebiters|
|05.11.1967||Holsloot||Godley & Biggs||Flying ants; toebiters|
|05.11.1967||Smalblaar||Don Fullman||Black flies|
|14.10.1967||Holsloot||Tony Biggs||Heavy hatch of snipe flies|
|18.05.1968||Witte||Geoff Keays||Dragonfly larvae|
|14.09.1968||Smalblaar||A.M. Mackereth||Stomach packed with blue winged midges; crabs; toebiters; water covered with midges|
|08.09.1968||Smalblaar||E Keayes||Stomach full of flies and beetles|
|22.09.1968||Smalblaar||E Keayes||Midges larvae; beetles|
|01.09.1968||Eerste River||R.D. Scholtz||Stock caddis larvae|
|01.09.1968||Berg River||D.C. Lewis||Galaxias|
|03.08.1968||Nautes Reservoir||R.D. Scholtz||A fantastic emergence of winged harvester termites|
|13.12.1968||Smalblaar||A.M. Mackereth||Winged terrestrials; demoiselle flies|
|04.05.1969||Liesbeeck||Dale C. Lewis||Galaxias; beetles|
|20.04.1969||Steenbras Reservoir||J. Mills||Freshwater shrimps|
|22.05.1969||Steenbras Reservoir||E. Pringle||Freshwater shrimps|
|22.05.1969||Steenbras Reservoir||L.E.A. Rackham||Glassworms|
|28.04.1969||Smalblaar||John Beams||Stuffed with grasshoppers; toebiters|
|29.04.1969||Donkergat||John Beams||Toebiters; nymphs|
|09.05.1969||Smalblaar||Tom Burgess||Toebiters; grasshoppers|
|14.04.1969||Smalblaar||Tom Verhawe||Grasshoppers; flying ants|
|11.05.1969||Molenaars||L Hulett||Toebiters; flying ants|
|24.05.1969||Molenaars||A.B. Davidson||Toebiters; crabs; black flies|
|14.10.1969||Liesbeeck||R. Peacock||Maggots, tadpoles; frogs; small fish|
|01.09.1969||Hout Bay River||D.C. Lewis||Caddis; insects|
|20.09.1969||Holsloot||G. Clarke||Dragonfly nymphs; crabs|
|06.09.1969||Eerste River||W. Greig||Snails|
|21.10.1969||Smalblaar||E. Shelton||Grasshoppers; caddis larvae; beetles|
|24.02.1970||Smalblaar||A.B. Davidson||Beetles; toebiters|
|09.04.1970||Liesbeeck||C. Booth||Galaxias; snails|
|16.05.1970||Holsloot||G. Powis||Dun nymphs|
|15.05.1970||Smalblaar||A.M. Mackereth||Toebiters; crabs|
|26.04.1970||Smalblaar||L. Soule||Lizard; toebiters|
|27.09.1970||Liesbeeck||D. Lewis||Caddis; galaxias|
|24.10.1970||Amaro River||W. Greig||Fies; toebiters|
|20.09.1970||Upper Krom||E. Shelton||Caddis|
|08.11.1970||Smalblaar||C.A. McEwen||Black gnats|
|18.11.1970||Molenaars||Tony Biggs||Crabs; toebiters; flies; nymphs|
|05.05.1971||Liesbeeck||R. Fitzwilliams||Water snails; dragonfly nymphs|
|31.05.1971||Upper Dwars||P. Jooste||Toebiters; crabs|
|01.09.1971||Liesbeeck||R. Fitzwilliams||Galaxia minnows; dragonfly larvae|
|02.09.1971||Liesbeeck||R. Fick||Galaxia minnows|
|19.10.1971||Smalblaar||E. Shelton||Midges; toebiters|
|10.10.1971||Witels||E. Scholtz||Caddis; brown beetles|
|06.11.1971||Smalblaar||G.S. Gohl||Crabs; beetles|
|19.12.1971||Smalblaar||Eddie Shelton||Black midges|
|07.11.1971||Witte||M. Southgate||Stick caddis; beetles; dragonflies|
|13.11.1971||Dwars River||D. Clegg||Insects, tadpoles, toebiters|
|04.03.1972||JdT||L.H. Atkinson||Caddis; dragonfly nymphs|
|04.03.1972||JdT||L.H. Atkinson||Caddis; dragonfly nymphs|
|04.03.1972||JdT||A.M. Mackereth||Caddis; toebiters|
|16.01.1972||Holsloot||J. Ness||Crab; toebiters|
|26.02.1972||Witels||Peter Jooste||Caddis; toebiters; beetles; small flies; elephant tusk caddis|
|18.03.1972||Witels||Eddie Shelton||Midges; flies; beetles|
|11.05.1972||Smalblaar||D. Granville Roberts||Toebiters; grasshoppers|
|02.04.1972||Smalblaar||P. Jooste||Toebiters; grasshoppers; beetles|
|09.04.1972||Smalblaar||L. Soule||Toebiters; grasshoppers|
|11.05.1972||Smalblaar||D. Granville Roberts||Toebiters; grasshoppers|
|02.04.1972||Smalblaar||P. Jooste||Toebiters; crabs; caddis|
|09.04.1972||Smalblaar||L. Soule||Toebiters; grasshoppers|
|02.04.1972||Smalblaar||Toebiters; grasshoppers; beetles|
|04.03.1972||Witels||Elephant tusks caddis|
|05.11.1972||Holsloot||Toebiters; beetles; dragonflies|
|30.11.1972||Liesbeeck||Small flies; toebiters|
|24.04.1973||Holsloot||Toebiters; darking duns|
|25.03.1973||Holsloot||Crab; black flies; toebiters|
|25.05.1973||Witels||Elephant tusk caddis; toebiters|
|10.10.1974||Witels||Elephant tusk caddis|
|15.09.1974||Witte||Elephant tusk caddis; toebiters|
|12.12.1974||JdT||Elephant tusk caddis|
|26.01.1975||JdT||Caddis; tadpoles nymphs|
|04.05.1975||E.P.||Toebiters; dragonfly nymphs; grasshoppers|
|03.05.1975||Molenaars||Grasshoppers; flying ants; toebiters, mayflies|
|31.05.1975||Holsloot||Blood worm; toebiters|
|21.09.1975||Holsloot||Dragonfly nymphs; caddis, millipedes|
|01.09.1975||Witte||Elephant tusk caddis, dragonfly lavae|
|09.11.1975||Holsloot||Crabs; land beetles|
|26.10.1975||JdT||Toebiters; water beetles; nymphs, caddis|
|10.05.1976||Smalblaar||Trout rising to small black flies|
|25.05.1976||Molenaars||Small dark mayflies|
|21.03.1976||JdT||Elephant tusk caddis|
|15.11.1977||Smalblaar||Dragonfly nymphs; elephant tusk caddis|
|19.11.1977||Holsloot||Crabs; caddis larvae|
|12.11.1977||Jdt||Elephant tusk caddis|
|05.12.1977||Smalblaar||Full of midges|
|04.04.1978||Smalblaar||Toebiters; beetles, grasshoppers|
|12.11.1978||Smalblaar||Rising to black natural flies|
|28.05.1979||Smalblaar||Grasshoppers; caeddis; toebiters|
|25.04.1979||Smalblaar||Dragonfly larvae; elephant tusk caddis|